Proto Sun

how a neutron star got much-smaller than the 'lower' limit;
how a black-hole got much-smaller than the 'lower' limit

[See also: Pluton]


Neutron stars formed from supernovae by iron-core-collapse, range narrowly a factor of two in mass, the largest having sufficient gravitational-condensation energy, converting toward inward-kinetic bounce, to collapse all-but the superface 'thin' outer layer of iron -suspended on embedded protons and degenerate electrons- which radiates energy too fast to immediately neutronize, (or if it does initially, backs-out and rebuilds its 'thin' iron superface).

Larger neutron stars, have sufficient mass to go all-the-way and go-hole: quickly becoming 'black holes' immediately-or-soon-after....

However, The smallest neutrons stars, -having but half the gravitational mass,- are only neutron-cores: deep-within still-iron stars evaporating towards condensation:--

In the meso-core around the neutron-core 'nucleus' (a star-size atom), iron-nuclei contact-enough to only exchange nucleons, but not fusion: not completely neutronize: The lighter almost-iron nuclei buoy toward the surface, while the heavier stay sunk near the inner core, gradually neutronizing to superheavy nuclei (absorbing electrons from the degenerate to nuclear); and so cooling by absorbing thermal energy to nuclear mass-excess, and increasing the neutron-core mass by nuclear accretion, somewhat....

(Note that iron-species-spreading occurs also in the pre-neutron-star core early-on, but, does-not escape the core weak-to-neutral gravitation: there is no strongly-'up' near the center ... and this may be the 5-hours-early neutrino event seen in SN1987A.)

Meanwhile the lighter sub-iron nuclei buoying outward, also cool, -and,- cannot re-fusion in the meso layer: in the preponderance of iron-mean nuclei, altogether self-cooling ... but ... coming toward the surface, the lighter nuclei re-dominate the nuclear species mix, until higher-enough the lightest nuclei can re-begin fusion, (but not-yet the medium-light nuclei still too-near-iron to be exothermic with aught but neutron-absorption). The statistical-time process of fusion reheats the outer surface of the neutron-core 'neutron'-star: evaporating its surface-- firstly electrons, giving the star an overall positive charge buoying the heavier nuclei, and gradually burning-away the star ('burning gravity') toward ultimately a much-smaller-than-initially neutron star....

[Recheck arithmetic: Either small neutron stars don't go all the way -or, else- the large neutron stars have such double energy as to blow-off the outer layer to a smaller-large; --or-- this defines a nearer-minimal-supernova process for generating a neutron star.]

And, in some case,--

[under construction]

(Thinking) a cooling neutron star may chill-shrink until it just begins to crush its core into a quark-star, and (the) minimal energy release in the crush may lift the outer 90% off-and-away, just fast-enough to let it suddenly sublime its neutron burden, into a solar mass of hydrogen (popped neutrons) swirling around that magnetic mini-singularity, which later forms a solar system of our sun and planets.

Consider a neutron star left-over from its supernova event, and bereft of its former star-hood, and planets which all loosed from the gravitational grip of the former giant star when it blew-away 80% of its mass to the cosmos. It cools as the deep remainder of its pent-up neutrinoes outgas from the ever tighter intersticies of the neutron superfluid, leaving the neutron star 'cold' and 'hard - cold, in the context of thermal random-motion superfluid vortices, and, hard, in the sense of atomic nucleon packing and mossbauer-like effects, lacking springy bounce where residual neutrino-jabs once tended to reconstitute protons from neutrons, and internal inter-nucleon energy transfers once kept neutrons ever so slightly repulsive - an infalling asteroid would 'ring' with percolations by itself, no longer imparting its clap into the neutron star surface.

Such a neutron star would slowly shrink, mere centimeters in its 30Km radius, and over eons might draw-down more asteroidal debris from its not fully escaped debris ring (consisting mostly of uranium-heavy metals). As this neutron star condenses and gains weight, it may crush its core, undoing the neutronic structure there: reducing them to their quark constituents. Gravity holds it together, but as the center crushes it acts as a catalyst on neutrons surrounding, helping breaking them into their quark constituents. As this center collapses further, and releases some energy into the 'solid-pack' of surrounding neutrons, the outer portion of the neutron star may lift-off ... if this is a slow process, the neutrons may simply lift high enough to release themselves from the surface-binding gravity, and ooze-out onto the debris disk ... neutrons by themselves (without extreme gravity to bind them) drift apart, and 'pop' back into protons and electrons (called, hydrogen) ... a process not unfamiliar to the cosmic Big-Bang: it may be indistinguishably similar ... a neutron star originally having a mass a little greater than our sun may return a solar mass of slightly cooked hydrogen to surrounding space, and shrivel into a tiny curious 'wriggly-hole' (not quite a gravity singularity like the famed 'black-hole') amid a plane of hydrogen, the 'stuff' of suns, spinning madly about the center ... and the gas on the plane would soon recollect into a large sun (the size of ours) and its attendant planets: the angular momentum might lop-side 'flip' as a toy top, or as cake-batter around a beater, with the center 'wriggly-hole' thrown out to the outer edge in a retrograde orbit, the actual angular momentum is preserved: just the apparent 'flips' until we find this Pluton ... planets further away would either not exist (because they were in the plane moving the same direction 'grade' as the new sun, and their orbits would fold back in among the sun's planets orbits), or further away, would have apparent retrograde motion as they chase the sun around Pluton.

A small mass 'star' estimably the mass of Saturn, in retrograde orbit at the distance of Pluto, seems a much smaller mass to the astronomers' gaze as it less gravitationally affects the planets it 'passes' so quickly: it might seem to have merely a few 'Earth' masses. It may have wrenched Pluto away from Neptune, and every time it passes Pluto, it may fling Pluto in a different direction off the planetary plane, but still in orbit about the sun. And the large moon, Triton, of Neptune may have come from those wandering planets such as were once in orbit about it [Pluton] before the sun re-formed and gathered its own. A novel place for one Grand Nuclear Space Cruiser to find and visit in this next decade as we claim our immanent domain among the planets of our solar system.


When the weight of a neutron star exceeds the stamina of neutrons in its core, crushing them back to primordial-energy-density (early-Big-Bang-stuff) the star wholely collapses into its own core in a fraction of a second to become a mass-hole ... The majority of mass-holes are thus 3-solar-masses or more, starting from the mass needed to collapse its original neutron star... But in some cases the neutron-star equator spins into temporary orbit stalling the holing process meanwhile letting the pole-caps collapse by inertial impact: If the core breaches a pole cap, before it holes, primordial-energy floods-out in a fraction-of-a-second: a baby-Big-Bang....

(Note the evacuated core allows the remaining neutron mass to ram down, and the spin-orbitation process may repeat, and rhythmic eccentricity may so alternately-explain the regular(ized) neutrino-bursting detected from SN1987A-- and might so better-explain the narrowness of the neutrino-pulses shorter than the NDE-refresh-times: emanating from the tiny primordially-dense core....)

As primordial-energy floods out, some of it converts to nucleons, but mostly gamma-rays, (instead of neutrinos: not having the femto-symmetry to generate neutrinos) possibly 500-photons-per as in the long-ago-cosmic Big-Bang event, But mostly too slow to escape, the nucleons fall back and recycle, reducing the available mass even further from-1000-to-100-to-10-Earths....

There is no minimum-mass for a black-hole, and Pluton may be small-- possibly a few Earth-masses.... a very-tiny mass-hole....

And, some of these are thus GRB Gamma-Ray-Bursters ... A billion stars in the cosmos go supernova, every year: 3-million every day, and 1-or-2-of-those does the burster routine pouring out 10-thousand times the visible, energy, 10-billion-times the intensity: for a millionth the duration of a nova, outshining the gamma-ray-cosmos....

These occur mostly at great cosmic distance because there's more space-volume at great distance... Also, the early-cosmic galaxies had less turmoil and slower spin (more uniform across the cosmos), and whence more instances of neutron stars collapsing with pole-cap-breach, whereas faster-spin of collapsing neutron stars results in earlier-stall, and even-slower-spin results in no-stall, with pole-cap impact not-breached by the core ... the optimal spin might be a sub-second-rotation to just catch the equator into a quantum-locked spin-orbitation to stall the holing process while maximizing the pole-ram-consumption into the core....

A premise discovery under the title,

Grand-Admiral Petry
'Majestic Service in a Solar System'
Nuclear Emergency Management

© 1996, 2008, 2011