|a supernova and its neutrinos|
On a night late in February 1987, an astronomer stepping outside his observatory high in the mountains of Chile, looked up to the sky and noticed a bright star in the south that seemed out-of-place ... Hurriedly he retraced his steps to his bookshelf, inside, and found indeed it had not existed recently in the usually clear skies above, but it was in a place about where the books listed a blue-giant, Sanduleak (-69 202),... and within the hour he notified astronomers around the world of his newly discovered supernova, SN1987A.
A supernova of this type is a very large star, even ten times larger than our sun, that has burned by nuclear fusion, much of its fuel hydrogen, deuterium, then helium, carbon, oxygen, silicon, etc., at its core, and has there accumulated about a solar-mass of iron-like ash that won't burn further ... at which juncture the overweight of the star collapses the core, from thousands of kilometers across, down to 30 kilometers in mere seconds into a neutron 'star' surrounded by in-falling layers of more yet-to-burn star fuel, the fresh silicon-carbon mix layer, which crash onto the core and burn instantaneously, completely:- the result being explosive and its shock of extra-intense fire travels quickly outward to the star's surface, igniting undissipated more-complete burning all along the way ... the net result being the star aside its core flashes-over and entirely blows away to hot nebulous plasma, while also impelling its remnant core neutron star in some unpredicted direction at typically intragalactic velocity.
That's what the astronomer saw from his vantage on Earth, his safe-haven about 160,000 light-years far-away-later. But what he saw was only about 1% of the total energy expended by the supernova and hours too late for detecting the much bigger initial event at the supernova's core: 99% of its energy was spent in the few seconds of core-collapse, where it generated a sudden flood-burst of 10^57 neutrinos, each a half-photon-particle traversing ordinary atomic objects without absorption, with such unembarrassed ease that the star itself seems translucent, nearly invisible when viewed in new-technology neutrino-astronomy: It would go unnoticed except for the occasional capture of a neutrino striking an electron, proton, or neutron, exactly on-center, kicking it so hard it radiates Cernkov light, or is absorbed in a nuclear-chemical reaction, inside a proper detector. This is what NDE operators found when reviewing their automated records of the hours preceding the visibly observed event: inside their tanks of thousand of tonnes of pure water, a handful tens of neutrinos, -of the 10^16 passing through from the supernova core-collapse.
What the astrophysicists 'saw' was something yet more revealing. The correlated neutrino-event data collected from both the IMB NDE and the Kamioka NDE [REF: IAU circulars, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nature, etc.], reveals what really happened at the center inside the star at the last moments before the supernova event. Time-series and power-spectra, histogramic analyses show the neutrinos exiting the neutron-izing core of SN1987A were predominantly 7.1-7.4MeV (confined within 0.2MeV), and synchronized laser-like (n-aser) in clicklike pulses as short as the NDE 50 nsec. aperture, shorter than its recovery time, and timed at 210 msec. intervals (confined within 20 msec.) ... except for two earliest neutrino events which were actually antineutrinos (*) pointing back at the LMC as their source-origin, and for the NDE energy-detection-threshold events (below 10MeV) which exhibited more spread and variability, (Apparently most neutrinos were generated in 15-m-shallow batches cooked evenly behind shock-dense walls, percolating abruptly through the surface, but a small portion ahead of the wall were more individualistic as neutrinos go-- and when caught, shut the NDE aperture quickly, leaving their heeling bunches arriving unnoticed in the aperture-recovery phase).
* (The early antineutrinos came from nuclear neutrons destabilized by diffusing electrons and ripped apart by nuclear protons recoiling to nuclear centers as iron-type nuclei abutted to fusion in the initial crush approaching nuclear density, and stimulated by the cascading neutrino flux ... then in a moment, fusioning at the star center recombined protons and electrons into neutrons, releasing neutrinos 1.3 MeV-cooler welling-up toward the surface)
(Alternative explanations for the neutrino-bunching, include: shallow cooking behind shock-dense walls; stimulated-n'aser-emissions; gravity-gradient-ringing: Shroedinger's Equation for a fast-moving radiate; cascading collapse toward neutron-density, successive reconstituting at each stage; aether-dragging or frame-dragging as the outer face of the neutrino pulse makes-way letting rearward neutrinos catch up ... And astrophysicists will ponder and adapt their supernova theory models to fit the evidence gathered.)
There was also neutrino evidence from two other NDE's but that had very different characteristics, occurring 5 hours earlier than the IMB and Kamioka detections: It may be attributable to a little-commented event in a supernova core occurring before collapse, releasing a smaller quantity of neutrinos: As 56Fe does not fusion to 112Te endothermically until receiving 44MeV, about 50× hotter than the 10G°K core, the iron core building in the final hours of its last day reaches pressure and temperature where iron nuclei touch exchanging helons (1.3MeV at 15G°K), neutrons (3.6MeV), electrons (8.3MeV), for slightly less repulsive off-iron mishmash (cf 24×28 is 0.6% less repulsive than 26×26) maintaining particle count while chewing-up a tenth the energy and just slightly reducing maintainance pressure, leaning it toward full collapse, neutrinos just slightly cooking in an event converting the iron-mode core to iron-mean: which mishmash builds until its low-end nuclei re-fusion, reducing particle count, and the whole accelerates into collapse hours later.
(Supernova-theory calculates that the rapidly collapsing iron core furthermore photodisintegrates to raw helium and hydrogen and y-rays, as it nears the bottom of collapse... However, note also, 'modern' gravity calculations are still in need of a 25% mass-hole-correction for neutron stars...)
But this is not the first known neutrino evidence of a supernova: Unseen conjectured XN1974 recorded by the HomeStake Mine NDE (KLande/Nature Oct 11, 1974) where no visible detection was made but its neutrino signature rang clear, in retrospect now blows the horn on the evaluation of supernova evidences and extrasolar neutrino production....
ATTRIBUTION APOLOGY: Prior copy had instances of Cernkov Cerenkov radiation misattributed to Compton (inverse radiation) as are vaguely similar involving high energy electrons and photons (Compton) or photonic medium (Cernkov), producing energetic photons. (Nevertheless, Casmir-effect Zero-point-energy 'ZPE' field theory would have Compton inverse radiation simulate Cernkov radiation from charged particles scattering virtual photon pairs-- at sublight speeds: Physics theory and physics experimentation-history make poor coincidences, and worse memories....)
A premise discovery under the title,