|nearish Earth, mild gravity, landable, subterraformable... and, has geologically-recent insecta, fish, eels, lizards, mammals, dinosaurs, humans, corpses, accoutrements, masks, gargoyles, footprints... fossils since its last breathable atmosphere collapsed... a treasure-trove of (pre)history--|
[See also planet twinning, and Mars' erstwhile 'twin' Astrus]
PREFACE: Mars has virtually no atmosphere, its equatorial surface temperature is well-below freezing water, its remnant air freezes out biannually on polar caps cold enough to freeze carbon-dioxide during the winter, (as summer polar icecaps sublime and transport to the opposite winter pole twice per 687.0-Earth-day Martian long year), yet by some estimates, an Earth-equivalent-atmosphere of cold-hard water-ice and frosty carbon-dioxide-ice clathrate of 'greenhouse' gases not ready for air-breathing plants at current partial pressures but maybe for hydroponic psychrophilic diatoms in depth-liquefied saltwater: atmospheric pressure is too low to sustain liquid water on the surface, and too cold to sublime vapor from the permafrost of lower latitudes.... And, Mars-space has two tiny moons and by their diminuitive size we may presume significant scattered rings of undisposed dark rocky débris to watch-out-for...
So, now, it appears NASA Mars Exploration Rover MER-A "Spirit" found human remains on Mars "Home Plate" sol 1402, Dec. 13, 2007:
On a dry lake bottom showing stratified sedimentary rock faces exposed by slippage of the nearshore shelf--
(N.B. the NASA/JPL jpg-images seem to have been overprocessed by too-low-bandwidth-limited-FFT-filtering [spatial comb-filter] resulting in 'contour-ringing' which makes faint curves less reliable as object-indicators...)
(Images and links thereto Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech Image Use Policy 2011 and, Using NASA Imagery and Linking to NASA Web Sites 2008. Annotations and indications are the author's herein 2012.)
Not a naturally sculpted rock appearing where imagination seeks a familiar form, This is a well-proportioned and correct anatomy lying at reasonable position angles, and complete in scenario, accoutrements, fossil effects, of a fisherman corpse uncovered thousands or millions of years because the atmosphere was ripped away leaving no air to move dust and, as the rover team itself found, 'dustdevil' winds sweep objects clean.
The lake-related objects appear consistent with a calamitously quick-but-quiescent end to Mars routine surface-life clemency; Mars may have lost its atmosphere abruptly as a 60-mi.-diameter-order moon below 'stationary' orbit was dragged down by Mars' tidal draw and in its final waning hours of orbital apoapsis winding down to circular, plowed around the atmosphere, blasting it away into space, and lastly itself fell... Mars' present moons may be leftovers from that 'Biblical' destruction era.
The impactor may have been a 'Lagrange orbit' moonoid that Mars failed to acquire when it formed 4.6 billion years ago, that got dislodged maybe by gravitational tugs of Jupiter or maybe by scientists playing with sufficient technology to tip it onto Mars, or maybe by other more purposeful goal.
Mars was one of the last planets formed beyond the solar nebula frostline to drift in: whence it may have been
a smallish gas planet and, for its smallish size and nebula-orbit-average-radius, its iron content may have been
less dense and had not absorbed as much of its early oxygen-- whence it could have become 'animal-livable'
sooner.... Now the question remains: Who, were the Martians, and where, did they go before the end...?
ABOVE: annotated ROI objects layout map, image; REF ►http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/all/2/p/1402/2P250825588EFFAW9DP2432R1M1.JPG
AN EXTRA-LARGE IMPACTOR:
The main grazing-impact is the singularly large Valles Marineris, ESE, in particular the exactingly-straight-sided gradually-spreading ESE gorge from its entry at 60.7°W 13.3°S, with its final impact in the abruptly broadened 'center' 71.5°W 10.4°S splaying and veering north, a total distance about 400 mi. clearing 23-40 mi. wide, exactingly as-needed-and-expected for touchdown of an atmosphere-stripping moonoid (but we don't know just how much atmosphere Mars had), and beyond-which surface-gouging and cracking-crazing continue W and more meandering and lumpy and generating side-fractals, and gradually closing and finally smashing into brittle top-shield and fracturing that into chunky latticework following the general shape of the volcanic shield plateau. Note that the ESE entry cut right-straight-into the 3 km edge-slope of the shield, undeflected, undeterred, unswerving through gradual thickening 3-6-km-higher, leaving a 6-km-deeper gully that refilled all the way from the northern hemisphere sub-permafrost glacial waters sloping to 2-km-deeper-still... but the followon length past the center took a rolling curbed path slowing and dragging up the elevating shield side, as if the impactor finally fragmented and the major remnants continued to split the shield plate itself resting on softer ground 6-km-beneath probably permafrost rubble.... And it appears to have had 5-12 significant smaller moonlets traveling close-by, plus numerous bits-and-pieces with it or broken from it, rolling-and-skipping....
A tight cluster of 4-5 lesser quickly subducted grazing-impacts preceded the first by one orbit period 100 minutes while the planet beneath turned 900 miles eastward, (250 mi. NNE), and a second tight cluster of 2-3 by two orbits 200 minutes earlier but 50 mi. closer; plus, assorted shallow gougers and debris...
(Compare also numerous hundreds-of-miles-long shallow gullies, miles wide, appear parallel and crisscross like similar pressure-cracks from multiple impacts shifting the shield; And, the vast west-to-north extension of the Hebes Chasma appears even to have split the shield, matching southwest and northeast sides too closely to be a river)...
Touchdown occurred into the side of the 3-Mons volcanic shield and theoretically by computer we can extrapolate back to its last orbit and determine whether that was a controlled, deorbit, or final tidal draw-down, (and ultimately we might estimate the shape and configuration of the object itself)... meanwhile we'll hand-estimate this: The main touched down at an altitude of 3-6-km, with a width of 22.9 mi. (albeit there seems also to be an overhang scraping parallel 5 miles souther till that gap was closed-up), and climbed over the additional rise about 6-km, lasting till it splayed at 68.7°W 11.3°S at a roughly repeat altitude-of-entry, with a final cohesive-width of 39.7 mi., and then plowed deep and wide to 71.5°W 10.4°S, majorly fragmented, slowing rapidly, (N.B. cos 11.3° = 0.98 which leaves our already-crude estimate as-is), about-500 mi. to the veering deflections, and piecewise another intense 500 mi. beyond that... When we can get accurate elevations we might estimate the inbound angle, but it already looks nearly level-altitude, most of its early ground-gouging due to the 'slope climb' rather than orbit periapsis, following a great-circle over the planet sphere maybe 500 mi. longer than what shows, and, what does show, if it had been modeled as a sphere, accounts for at-maximum a parabolic orbit... so, we 'know' it had been subparabolic, in orbit, and its atmosphere-stripping event did-occur (for whatever atmosphere existed till its depletion), and then only ground-tide remained to slow the moonoid orbit.
The maximum width as it slowed and sank in the valles 'center' looks like 69 mi., as it was falling apart, Less the shield-splitting-spacing like the 7 mi.-wide 'pass' just behind the east-end touchdown, albeit the splitting could have been more proportional than merely an offset, Leaving a total size of 62 mi. diameter for its greatest 'lump', as its shape was unlikely spherical at less than half the diameter and a tenth the self-gravitational mass to be, spherical, Enough mass to slow the rotation of Mars by 0.02 mi./hr (3 sec./day). (Note the western fracture zone exhibits double 7-mi.-wide splitting but without slope erosion.)
And it was bearing straight for Pavonis Mons on the equator, which it had ever missed -and all the 6-9-km-high ground and mons peaks- in thousands of low orbits preceding, which, suggests this was, all, by design, exacting or crudely: the same moonoid would have empowered the entire civilization to leave the planet, to space orbit or venture beyond, outward or inward through the solar system, by 'sky-[net]-hooking' the nearing moonoid on 200-2000 mi. carbon cables for a swing-up-sling-forward 4.5-0.5 'gee' launch westward to reach orbital or escape velocity... and calculably 56 orbits before final impact, (some globe maps of Mars show faint streaks or tidal-ripping in line preceding the touchdown), it made a final pass over Mars' future "Spirit" landing site....
AN EXTRA-LARGE-COUNTER-DEORBITING SECONDARY, IMPACTOR:
To easily control and deorbit a large moonoid requires not-very-much energy but a secondary moonoid in coincidently periodic orbit each deflecting the other gradually 'til the periapses of one at extreme eccentricity touches the atmosphere and thereafter air-drag brings its apoapses down to circular and finally to ground impact... (Note that scientists reviewing MOC, MOLA, and THEMIS imagery found equally-long 400 mi. rolling streaks and a fracture system of mud-slurry-flows at Cerberus Fossæ near antipodally to the Valles Marineris but at a significantly different azimuthal angle--indicating possibly a different object-set crossing ours at only one node, but, for its minor size does not fully account for decircularizing a moonoid orbit...however, an equally major but slanted-not-grazing impact in the same region, at near perpendicular azimuth, may--its 2×1 crater-trace 'footprint' tells of 30° entry sending up steam and raising a slight ridge...)
ATMOSPHERE STRIPPING BY MOONOID DEORBITATION:
Although the gravitational strength and tide of the small 60 mi. diameter moonoid is insufficient at its surface and beyond, to gravity-sling the atmosphere, because its own orbital velocity about Mars is so fast that the air mass in passing has barely time to lift, achieving only a lagging wave chasing the moonoid, rising and falling at the tidal speed of air (faster than the 500 mph speed of sound in the outer atmosphere about-150°K), that lifting energy is directionally drawing half the air mass along its orbit path, perpendicularly, 250 mph SSW, piling ever higher-and-deeper a higher order soliton tidalwave the moonoid eventually overtakes as its orbit cycle circularizes, coming down...
BORING AND HOW: Upon catching into the crossing-phase crest-front, the moonoid enters plowing into the wave 'pocket' front porch at hypersonic speed impact-drilling-up thick bowshock but which in short distance breaches the wave envelope front door and explodes freely into the vacuum of space (instead of persisting as a bowshock accelerating conically-rearward), half back-down and half up-and-away from Mars... (Also the configuration of the moonoid, being nonspherical because of its minor mass in that respect, can deflect jets of the bowshock but again statistically half-up-and-away-and-half-back-down)... And gradually the moonoid orbit settles into the upper atmosphere and the bowshock-escape-up becomes additionally powered by the bowshock-down laterally refilling the conic tailing: greatly improving the yield above-50%, (what makes hypersonic-flight expensive also efficiently sheds the upper atmosphere)...
TOTAL AIRMASS EJECTION: A circular orbit contains little free energy for ejection of an atmosphere; deceleration by 5% (10% of the orbit energy; 400 mph of a 2.2 mi./sec. orbit) is sufficient to deorbit anything, 100 miles to the surface, without having involved much atmosphere... But an elliptic,-orbit contains up to a full circular-orbit-energy-worth (the upper limit being parabolic apoapsis), taking many-many cycles to ground the periapsis... but, the orbital energy extraction is also shared with the gravitational land-and-sea-tidal-drag, as well as inefficiencies severely heating the atmosphere... a 62 mi. dia. rocky moonoid is a Mars-8-psi-atmosphere-mass...
BURNING AND CONSUMPTION: In addition to ejecting a portion of the atmosphere, the moonoid surface ablates and 'burns down' in the atmosphere; an excess of free carbon, hydrocarbons, metals, especially iron, consumes the oxygen from the atmosphere, leaving only the faintly-telltale carbon-dioxide to freeze-out on the poles and potentially a thick pile of ferrous-oxide-rust feet-deep on the surface of Mars, turning it red, albeit only a dusting shows today... And the remnant moonoid, somewhat smaller, finally, plows the landscape... The question as to the magnitude of this process, however, is, Where's, the nitrogen...
SUPERWINTER: The reduction of the atmosphere, some by ejection, some by consumption of its oxygen, leaves it thinning and the variously related dust-vapors hide the sun, reflect sunlight, and darken the sky of Mars, plunging the atmosphere into a super-chill where the 'greenhouse' gases freeze-out on the poles and become useless before the sky clears again to the sunlight... the atmosphere of Mars has been locked-down...
(Note. Earth itself is probably safe from a similar such event, because, 1. its greater mass allowed it to capture more of its 'Lagrange orbit' asteroidal debris field during the Heavy Bombardment, 2. its great depth of ocean water and deep clathrates of methane-hydrate, ammonia, carbon-dioxide, in the seafloor, and 3. its tectonic-plate-subducted water and hydrates deep in the Earth, which allow motion to the plates, can recover an atmosphere, 4. its larger mass and continuing volcanic activity, including supervolcanoes, keep the surface warmer longer (but also started 'life' later), and 5. its proximity to the sun keeps the atmosphere up, better: Such would be an extinction event but recoverable to full-size genera-populations in 15-20 million years (4-million for coral reefs).... Mars, as noted earlier, may also have enough polar ice fields, plus deep permafrost, to recover an atmosphere if then kept warm: Once a warmth is returned and the carbon-dioxide content then restored to atmospheric, and the seas melted, and reseeded, the atmosphere will be less likely to collapse, above the minimum-global-warmth-threshold, and sea diatoms will eventually produce oxygen enough to be again usable by fish and humankind... but still a lot like survival-vacationing on a cold barren desert island... and restocking may-be faster than reseeding: in the question of re-terraforming-logistics....)
HOW LONG AGO:
The craters in the gorge of the Valles Marineris are probably mostly from impact-debris launched shy of orbital by the main impactor, returning mostly about a revolution later: the direct-airless-launch angle for suborbital-return would target most all pieces eastward of the valles but the day-rotation of Mars itself moved the valles eastward and under the return path in the same time. The fewness of craters at the bottom of the Valles Marineris gorge and, the probable cause of those being the selfsame final impact-splatter return, plus the clustering of many of the craters in the gorge, puts a youngish face on this event... we cannot make an accurate estimate of æons by crater count alone, but relatively the gorge looks to be about as old as the northern hemisphere also-hit by splatter return, and all low levels probably froze-solid in the same thermal-collapse era. Note that splatter from such a major WNW-bearing impactor tends to statistically disappear in the 'normal' solar-cosmic impact distribution, except larger fragment sizes will be limited by its maximum mass-and-energy availability; Contrast due-West-splatter would show reduced polar crater count, while due-North-splatter would greatly increase it; And empirically, Mars-crater-counting has not revealed significant differentiation from comparative scaled lunar, counts--their chart-curve-inflections being explained by other necessary phenomena, (the double-inflection-shift in the Mars crater-counts below 500 m dia. might implicate a very-thick-atmosphere downshifting final-energies of smaller meteors--earlier in Mars history)...
Currently geophysicist-planetologists studying Mars craters and their morphologies, find that a certain Tooting crater, nearly perfectly in-line with the Valles Marineris plow-up and just 1500 mi. downfield of its final main splash-point, is not only young itself estimably under 3 Ma by isochron-dating crater-counts, but the morphologies of sub-craters within-and-without its ejecta blanket on the vast lava-plain, age est. 400 Ma, are too similar, to separate by aging--which we infer as an overwhelmed abundance of smaller craters having been swamped by a superabundance of moonoid-impact-ejecta planetwide--more recently than that 3 Ma....
(Also compare the Cerberus Fossæ fractures have been estimated by crater-counting-scientists as about 5 Ma.)
(Also compare the Allan Hills meteorite deemed by isotope-sampling-scientists as from Mars 10-20 Ma after forming in cool water ca 4 Ga.)
The corpse was left very clean to-this-day because the impact debris, the little there was from grazing-strikes, flew WNW avoiding our due-W then-future-research site 3000 mi. downrange, And the lack of atmosphere depleted before the final impact, dropped all but the finest dust before it could circle the Mars globe, letting only massive 'rocks' eject into space, mostly in suborbits to return anywhere on Mars, and some ejected reached Earth, for meteorite-research... Once the 'mildly greenhouse' breathable atmosphere was stripped, the temperature of the remnant plummeted,-- helping preserve the artifacts....
The rover panorama imaging geology color markers are seen in several very-narrowband spectral filters, L2 753 nm deep red, L5 535 nm mid green, L7 432 nm purple-tinged blue, and while showing intense red implicating iron oxide, the scene also has broad areas of settled dusty-gray hematite more obtrusively apparent at lower levels of the lake bottom, suggesting the corpse lay in the higher shallows for less time than needed to convert the iron oxide rust-dust to hematite... Steeper surfaces shed the red dust lying everywhere--
Recovering the image color, first effort indicates the brilliant red iron oxide is superficial: Cleaved sediment faces and the steeper portions of the corpse and accountrements sides, seem to lack iron oxide, (but there is much iron-oxide dust settled atop level portions and shallow sides, enhancing to finer detail the 3D facets)... which further corroborates the moonoid-ablation theory for the source of Mars surface iron oxide...
The color in this scene is mapped from the rover camera filter spectral rgb wavelengths to the RGB basis after
rebalancing to approximate the known red of Mars overall surface and dim the excess blue-green to rock-gray...
There are no other obvious colors in this scene but black, not always shadow, black...
The 3-filter-rgb-wavelength-to-RGB matrix is,
ABOVE: 'terpolated narrowband color ROI 753 nm red; REF ►http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/all/2/p/1402/2P250825116EFFAW9DP2432L2M1.JPG
SAME: 'terpolated narrowband color ROI 535 nm green; REF ►http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/all/2/p/1402/2P250825291EFFAW9DP2432L5M1.JPG
SAME: 'terpolated narrowband color ROI 432 nm blue; REF ►http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/all/2/p/1402/2P250825588EFFAW9DP2432L7M1.JPG
(Images and links thereto Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech Image Use Policy 2011 and, Using NASA Imagery and Linking to NASA Web Sites 2008.)
[2016-05-19] Differentiations between Mars Visible maps, IR infrared maps, and Elevation maps, some remarkably extreme among all three, may help define the last-liquid age of the oceans,--for example, large flowlike regions in Visible and IR infrared show almost no Elevation variation, no flow-slope-boundaries, yet are starkly defined, while surrounding are contrastingly extant in only IR infrared, implicating deep-melts (possibly zone-refined hydrocarbons or simply where fish retreated) with temperature differences lasting to our present epoch mere-thousands of years... REF ►http://www.google.com/mars/#lat=37&lon=95&zoom=6
THE WHO AND WHAT, FIRST BEST ESTIMATE:
This appears to have been a Martian 'eskimo', nonnative, living on ice and eel/fish, the eel/fish maybe also nonnative a bottom feeder thriving on native seawater algæ because freshwater freezes out first leaving water saltier, residing at the center of an equatorial latitude low elevation large impact crater still streaked by fumaroles dark in visible-light bright in infrared; the 'eskimo's scant clothing, suggests, moderate ice-cold, thin dry atmosphere, low nitrogen, carbon-dioxide freezing-out on the Poles, and adaptation to cold clime, maybe an outlaw survival situation... In no longer satisfying thinning air the 'eskimo' attempted to return back across the lake, probably at the frightening sight of the onrushing moonoid ablaze on the ESE horizon, maybe for the ice-hole-fishing equipments, and seconds later the lake ice began shaking and heaving and cracking and stacking under the 160-km-sideways-deep gravity tide of the quick, close orbit-pass of the moonoid mass, and the major loss of lake water breaching its northwest sluice, the surface slicking under the blazing sky momentarily like a supergiant-sun, and already hot winds from days and weeks of increasingly similar overpasses everywhere around the equatorial tropic zone, and the 'eskimo' presumed a melt-condition necessitating immediate recovery of the equipments and, minutes later and ten paces short of intention the ice broke open and the 'eskimo' sunk, hip-deep in 3/8th-gee-muck, knocked 'flat-senseless-if-not-dead' in the ablation-fumed atmospheric-shockwave pressure-heat-pulse a million times harder than a hypersonic jet passing at ten paces... and, there were at-most weeks-more lowering passes of the moonoid in nearing-airlessness before it crashed hard ground... And, any residual ice sublimed over the subsequent decades...
(Note re the corpse that we can see a slight depression between the lower-arm bones: suggesting that the weather was at first hot-and-dry for some interval of weeks or months... the corpse did not freeze-dry 'til later, and the fish is probably now freeze-dried rotten, therefore, and cannot be reconstituted as a food supply for visiting astronauts on the equator, But, further north the fish may have survived long enough, in oxygen-depleting waters, to freeze live...)
(N.B. also a Jan.-Feb. 2014 NASA MER-B sol 3536...3567...3576 "Opportunity"-discovered freeze-dried shriveled hollow-double-stem sulfur-enriched mushroom aka "jelly doughnut rock" two piece "Pinnacle Island" cap and "Stuart Island" stem implicating a fast maybe-2-3-day refreeze of Mars already-cold atmosphere recurring after an occasional ephemeral rewarming after, this impact event: it might even recur during rare warm duststorms raising the atmospheric pressure and thawing the ground and turning the sky dark...ideal conditions for mushrooms... REF: ►photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/figures/PIA17942_fig1.jpg ... Images and links thereto Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech Image Use Policy 2011 and, Using NASA Imagery and Linking to NASA Web Sites 2008. Annotations and indications are the author's herein 2012.)
PAUCITY OF TREES, NO EVIDENCE OF CONTINENTAL FORESTS:
Nevertheless, the ice-plug-like object looks like a chunk of burnished thick-wooded vegetation, half wrapped in cloth, but might be pumice rock...
BELOW LEFT: rover-cross-stereo 'right eye' ROI, REF
BELOW RIGHT: rover-cross-stereo 'left eye' ROI, REF ►http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/all/2/p/1402/2P250825588EFFAW9DP2432L7M1.JPG
(Images and links thereto Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech Image Use Policy 2011 and, Using NASA Imagery and Linking to NASA Web Sites 2008.)
AN AREOLOGICAL (PLANET MARS) SCENARIO:
Mars is almost-exactly half-a-sphere of dustcaked permafrost seafloor, its northern hemisphere, and half-a-sphere of volcanic-lava-shield lands possibly-probably atop more deep permafrost, the southern hemisphere.... At a time yet-untold-long-ago it was balmy enough to sport liquid seas, but which froze-over, and its atmosphere locked-down, as we have it today.... It might be a recoverable scenario, but Mars has probably cooled to its very core.... It has one gigantic craterlike land-locked permafrost lake slightly-off-antipodal-to an almost-equilateral-triangle of mons-volcanos on the equator with one side of the triangle a linear triplet equally spaced (cf a two-dimensional representation of a tetragon)-- the whole and its parts almost to artifacted, perfection....
AN HISTORIC PLANET MARS SCENARIO:
Mars has half the radius, a quarter the surface area, an eighth the thermal mass, compared to Earth: Mars may have developed 'life' in half the time (half the mass-to-area ratio) and with only one continent managed to develop a single society population faster, albeit humans and some flora and fauna were probably nonnative... When the atmospheric clemency dropped in temperature to icy, the government foresaw the need to leave en mass and constructed an escape mechanism but that also destroyed the final value of the planet for 'life', Some humans were overlooked or not allowed to leave, possibly for their own safety... Mars is now a history-planet and one that may lead Earth-mankind back to interstellar-space-society and its rule over æons of 'god'-history...
The Mars human had a planetsize life-support system sustaining easily a sparse population--not just sunlight, air, water, food, but a food chain, and, a family chain, and, a government hierarchy and its 'tyranny' ('royally' interpreted as the extrema of royal-self-preservation even unto the elevation of the outlaw: the imposition of 'godly' law and order over the anarchy of rife jungle law)... In addition to the sea catch sack near the corpse, we are further-on finding numerous additional evidences of mankind including its feeding habits and garbage, its marks of authority, and technologies of its methods, and even its 'crocodile-rituals'... and, as well, general animalia, insecta, fish, eels, lizards, furry mammals, man-eating dinosaurs... a full and abundant paleozoology...
'A PICTURE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS'
One picture [next below], among hundreds so-far, stands out most-clearly summarizing the next level of Mars historic forensics...We find in it, a man-eating dinosaur freeze-dried long ago, with a brand on its crest implicating a royal purpose to its creation, to protect its royal enclave--that might include hordes of valuables, moneys, gold collected of billions of years (Mars singular continent equals Earth's own in multiple), archives of documents of those billions of years, and whatever information was preserved of man's deeper past in the galaxy (our Milky Way or a subgalaxy as there are thousands swirled-in amid the galaxy proper)... The dinosaur corpse is resting on slightly tilted ground lifting one cheek awkwardly with that-eye popped out and rolled downhill (to be found)... One wrist is tied down to a knot of the best technology directing all force of extraction to spread evenly securely along the stake; The mild slope of the hill kept the less-than-humanly-clever dinosaur on a tilt such that it should not attempt to stand uphill and pull the tied stake directly-out uphill, as standing so would've put the animal-form-balanced dinosaur more-off-balance so it stood downhill and even thereby stepping on the stake, holding it down... Its hind legs were cut out by knifelike incisions, a technology of mankind not of other animals, in simply efficient hexagonally parallel lines: one-pair-more-efficient than squarely... An excellently preserved specimen of decomposed 'obligate bipedal saurischian' theropod dinosaur, This one was used first to bait its mother (unseen right above this closeup) which was eaten first and decomposed more, merely days before the atmosphere wholely collapsed...
But even more exactingly--
The Cryolophosaur (dinosaur) presents an interesting theory-challenge: This particular dinosaur is also found on Earth, with a uniquely lateral crest between the small horns over the eyes (earning it a cute nickname), and it loves cool weather--whence in name, 'cryo' cold: the first Cryolophosaurus Ellioti bones were found in Antarctica in 1991, a place barely warmer than Mars is today: when the dinosaur lived there 190 million years ago... Why--? One possibility is its utility -in both places- for the 'ruling class' majorly controlling the planet: Toward the end of Mars atmosphere, the cooling weather may have reduced food production, leading to cannibalism in the out-country, and--an 'obvious' solution was to install man-eating dinosaurs to shift the human mindset to species-preservation and provide another source of food--dining on dinosaur-legs (apparent case)... On Earth 190 million years ago the Antarctic archipelago pre-ice-continent was tectonically moving into the south polar region and would have made an ideal place to cache the Mars gold horde: the dinosaurs would chase intruders 'til the continent froze over... It probably had a similar use on Mars--whence the branding on its crest right a '13~spoke~wheel'....
ABOVE: annotated ROI dinosaur layout, image; REF ►mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl-raw-images/msss/00064/mcam/0064MR0285031000E1_DXXX.jpg (Images and links thereto Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech Image Use Policy 2011 and, Using NASA Imagery and Linking to NASA Web Sites 2008. Annotations and indications are the author's herein 2012; N.B. 2015-temporary NASA lower-light-alternate ►http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/images/PIA16453_sol64_from_Rocknest_WB-full.jpg m.g.-r.)
HOW MUCH ATMOSPHERE--LASTING HOW LONG:
Mars and its 'disasteroid'-would-be-twin-planet condensed on the inner slope of the "snowline/frostline/ice line"--the 'gray' zone in the early solar nebula, where ice formed-and-sublimed at significant equilibrium with "atomized" vapors ('molecular' but the verbal term is such),--with the consequence that both became sub-mini-gas-planets (*) having deep atmospheres over comparatively little earth at their cores (1/9th as massive as the inner-more planets Earth and Venus), But also, in that transitional-ice-phase, without sufficient gravity for faster, they condensed more slowly than the early super-planetesimals of the Jupiter-Saturn-quad, and more by agglomeration as loose gas-and-ice-and-dust clouds such that they did not reach accretion mode growth as quickly if-at-all before they decided their Bode-Titius order (re mean solar orbital distance) still in highly elliptical orbits and the local-gravity of those super-planetesimals pulled away the fringes of the outer of the two--before all settled into more-separated circular orbits,--the 'disasteroid' reduced to an asteroid pack, and Mars retaining its atmosphere, cooling down fast and reaching full planet status quite livable for billions of years 'til recently.... Thus Mars may be a sobeit-case of empirical habitability data such that we, are here-now on Earth only shortly afterward.... (Other nebula-gas-and-dust-refinement-theories may be forthcoming.)
* (a sub-mini-gas-planet is an order-of-magnitude smaller than a mini-gas-planet 'mini-Neptune', and such that it doesn't outlast its sun).
Not so certain is how much--that Mars initially had an atmosphere estimably 1.5× the mass-bearing (1.6 kg/cm² vs. Earth's 1.03) at 0.6× the weight-bearing 'pressure', but may have had as little as half that because Mars is 1.52× farther removed in the Sun's ionizing UV and solar wind, or, may have started with more if rocky planet atmospheres build up from volcanism that Mars has had much less, (volcanos spew-up water vapor and gases).... Mars' present surface chemical composition analysis says it was insufficient, for abundant life--yet we find both this abundant evidence of, life, and, some paleontological image colorations suggesting freeze-dried blood--which means Mars was stable and recently, Earthlike, holding most of its gas-mass for probably up-to the same 4.6 Gyr or more--'til its global warmth failed and carbon-dioxide froze-out on the poles, depriving surface vegetations their daily intake (albeit ice cold seas kept an increase for diatom processes)--till the impactor took the final '3-psi' gasp below 'critical' and gas-loss processes to space entirely ran it down to the near-zero-trace-amounts of its atmosphere today...
(Note. Mars in its early billions of years of livable atmosphere had fewer -or possibly none- asteroid-impact extinction events: because hypersonic asteroids would have come in slower because Mars is farther out in the solar system, than Earth, and slowed to supersonic speeds or shattered at high altitude and not kicked up orders-of-magnitude-more dirt on impact--albeit yet noisily and with slight global haze cooling by what they did have... Volcanism was also less on Mars, than on Earth, because--starting at less mass heated to its 5/3rds power, less density, shorter thermal-resistance-length albeit less surface, times other factors for core size, reduced fault exposure, disproportionately-less heavy-nuclear-radiodecay, less cosmic-expansion-reheating, and possibly volcanoes by design, it started 3% up the exponential-tail cooling curve, and cooled sooner--maybe in 10-millions of years, in contrast to Earth's 100-millions--and ran cooler for its billions of years since....)
ITEMS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH:
NOMENCLATURE COMMENT: In deciding which to label this, human, humanlike, humanoid, the consideration alighted on a note that Earth fossil species are classified as a subspecies of "human."
CATCHPHRASE OF THE DAY:
AND MORE UNDER TEST FOR PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE:
ORBIT AND YEAR: Cosmic expansion effects.
A theory-variable is notable in the orbit and revolution of Mars about our sun: It would appear that the expanding cosmos, in the expanding-space version of the theory, being essentially isotropic, increases the radius of every orbital process, moons, planets, stars, galaxies, supergalactic clusters, atoms and nuclei (but with quantum fallback heating *): Any orbit or orbital in free space, being a first-order balance of angular momentum and central holding force, the expansion of space-æther-'vacuum' gently lifts the orbitation away from its center, to where it has yet-excess linear velocity, than directly-higher orbitation, which carries it yet-equally-further away: a rate of recession twice the instantaneous cosmic expansion velocity... whence Mars' orbit ca 4.6 Ga ~ 2/3 of the age of the cosmos today, when the cosmos itself was (2/3)3 as big (**), expanding distancewise uniformly 3/2 faster if unit-hyperbolic, was, by-inspection solving a polynomial-form for its average orbital radius R(T) = Σk Rk Tk, the expansion equation, VR = 2 Vcosmos(R,T) ⇒ ∂R(T)/∂T = 2 R(T)/Tcosmos ⇒ Σk Rk k Tk-1 = 2 Σk Rk Tk-1 ⇒ k = 2 (i.e. Rk≠2 = 0), whence R = R2 T2 , cumulatively (2/3)² of today's 142 million miles ~ 63 million miles ~ 0.68 AU, and so orbiting faster in a shorter period (2/3)³ of today's 687 days ~ 204 days (~30%)... The effect is likewise for elliptical orbits as for circular, And note also that gravitational interaction among the solar system planets also affects the orbits of each, and so Mars may need aeonic maintenance...
* (Note that in the case of atoms, being quantum-defined, the increase of electron orbital radius cannot be sustained by its wavelength, and the electron drifts back-in and, slowly, below-experimental-precision, radiates the excess energy... and too, objects, of atoms, recover size and pressure and, if gravitationally bound, radiate additionally gravitational-recollapse energy...altogether reheating the interiors of asteroids, planets, stars,--an anomaly not yet detected for Mars, but, as excess core temperature, has, been computed for Earth... The rate of energy impartation also depends on force-law-parabolic-coefficience and quickness to reemission--which differ for nuclei too charge-uniform to quickly generate photons, and quantum relief may be disguised in background neutrino-scattering and radiodecay... Equationally, radii remain the same except for heating-expansion and cooling-contraction, and local forces too remain at full-strength, and so cumulatively R0-log-T processes most-efficient at extracting energy from the expanding cosmos...)
** (N.B. if cosmic expansion is nearer critical-mass 'stop-at-infinity' as contemporary cosmology suggests, though it is probably much less after untold-or-infinite-cycles-preceding, or effectually much more if not-yet-all-collapsed before its central-hollowing Big Bang keeping it accelerating until its finality, then Vcosmos(R,T) = (R(T)/Rcosmos) · R˙cosmos = (R(T)/T(2/3)) (2/3) T(-1/3) = (2/3) R(T) / T , and twice-that for orbitals: VR = 2 Vcosmos(R,T) ⇒ ∂R(T)/∂T = (4/3) R(T) / T , which by-inspection solving a polynomial-form for its average orbital radius R(T) = Σk Rk Tk ⇒ the expansion equation Σk Rk k Tk-1 = (4/3) Σk Rk Tk-1 ⇒ k = 4/3 (i.e. Rk≠4/3 = 0), whence R = R4/3 T4/3 , cumulatively (2/3)4/3 of today's 142 million miles ~ 83 million miles (0.89 AU) : 1.72× for unit-parabolic expansion vs. 2.25× for unit-hyperbolic, today, except, cosmic-expansion, space-expansion, gravity, spacetime-relativity, are not-yet understood for large distances and velocities, especially super-lightspeed-distances... Compare also for no-gravity-decapture-boost the orbit expansion is just the cosmic expansion itself...)
(N.B. In the continuing expansion of the cosmos, VHubble ≈ D / Tcosmos ≈ c at 13.82@9 light-years so far, Mars will recede further, emphasizing its 'global cooling problem' for terraforming, and Earth likewise cooling, meanwhile Venus may get a 'global cooling improvement'--before the sun goes red-giant in billions of years...)
(Note, As twin planets with larger Astrus, the two started as sub-mini-gas-planets in-between 0.68 and 1.24 AU, ca 0.90 AU, today's 'balmy zone'...meanwhile planets Earth and its twin Venus started in-between 0.32 and 0.44 AU, ca 0.38 AU, probably as mini-gas-planets 'mini-Neptunes' boiling-away their proto-atmospheres just-inside today's Mercury-orbit...as suggested by the recent Kepler-11 results...)
Note also in any exploding-energy version of the theory all processes would be gaining potential energy, which is mass-energy, rest-mass in the case of particles, and increasing gravitational attraction and so reducing the expansion rate, possibly even shrinking orbits over eons, and so reheating atoms... But it may also be a combination, especially as the ultra-density in the early moments of the Big Bang dragged the aether to expand, (and the far cosmic limits may be already 'crushing'-back)...
This may be further refined for other changes in the rate of cosmic expansion over eons, for mass-'impartation'-capture vs. energy-'heat-radiation'-loss, etc.
Note. Cosmic expansion may be 3D:2D-analogous to a pool of water with stretching sides, the surface expanding everywhere uniformly as depth diminishes, but properties changing little, 'til it nears bottom, (which finds a parallel in a Biblical story of disciples paddling hard against stiff winds in the dark, until their master steps aboard and the boat immediately hits bottom on the far shore: muckiness had hardened their progress more than wind hindered).
POTENTIAL SUBTERRAFORMING SCENARIOS: (forwardlooking statements)
A GNSCruiser with nuclear authority can:
However, in any case, that much said--